This article was originally written October 3, 2007 and published here before OpenSocial was announced. With this blog post, I'm moving it to my blog to avail of features such as commenting and cross-linking with other related posts. I have not edited it since the original writing; if I do, edits will appear as updates marked as such.
Social networks are currently walled gardens: you need an account on multiple social networking sites to be able to interact with all your friends. This article makes a case for opening up the core protocols that define person-to-person interaction (decentralized networks) and various aspects of your public personality (decentralized applications). It is possible to use a few well-known semantic Web protocols and microformats to break down the walls and make the Internet a true social network.
Social networking Web sites are currently walled gardens. If you're on MySpace, you cannot communicate with Facebook users or Orkut users. Although the features provided by most sites are comparable, if not equivalent, one must have an account on each of these sites to interact with members from that community.
That is not how social networks work in the real world. I do not need to be a citizen of a country or a follower of a religion to converse with the members of that country or religion, respectively. OK, this is a far-fetched analogy, but consider email.
The Evolution of Email
Before email as we know it today was in wide-spread use, the earliest way to send a message to anyone using a computer was simply to drop a file in their home directory. You could thus only send a message to users of the same computer as you. Ray Tomlinson came up with the idea of addressing users using the "@" sign, so email could be sent across computers. In the opinion of Jon Postel, this was a nice hack that finally evolved to an IETF RFC.
Today, we are able to address email to anyone on any network that's connected to the Internet. Their ISP, or operating system, or mail transmission agent (MTA) or mail user agent (MUA; commonly referred to as a mail client) has no bearing on whether they will receive our email or not. The diversity in the email ecosystem allows me to receive, download and view my email in exactly the way I want.
Fast forward to Instant Messaging
Instant messaging evolved similarly, with ICQ, AOL, Yahoo!, and Microsoft all developing their functionally-equivalent, but non-interoperable protocols for essentially the same task. You had to have an account with each of those providers to be able to talk to their users. Along came XMPP and Jabber, followed by the development of an IETF RFC for instant messaging, which has now found support in commercial products such as Google Talk. XMPP does not require users to have accounts on multiple servers; if you have an account on one XMPP server, you can chat with any user on any other XMPP network (provided other prerequisites such as authorization are met.)
Why this makes sense for Social Networking
Social networking is no longer one of the fringe activities on the Web. There are several Web sites that purportedly do the same thing (and I'm too lazy to list them all.) The point is, social networking is now becoming a conduit rather than a destination. Much of our online time is spent on social activities, and the importance of individual users and their individual contributions taken together is increasing.
So what would it look like?
A decentralized social network would let users sign up at whichever Host site they prefer (just as you can sign up with any email provider today.) They would be able to participate and interact with users of any other such Host site, with no additional signing up to do. They would be able to create a profile that best reflects their motivation in signing up: a college student may sign up at a Host that allows him to display his classes and academic interests, while a professional may choose a Host site that emphasizes her skills and experience. Applications running on any Host site will have access to the Friends List of the user account they are running under, even across Host sites. A user's profile may even be fragmented across multiple Hosts, with each Host hosting a particular aspect, or type of content for the user.
Advantages for Users
- You don't have to sign up at multiple sites.
- You can choose a Host site that best suits your personality. If you like a casual, "explosion-in-a-media-factory" look, sign up for MySpace. If you prefer a more professional look, go for Facebook. If you want to expose more professional data than personal data, Linked-In is your Host. If you would like to express your affiliation with your company or non-profit, use their Host site as your primary home.
- If none of these suit you, just roll out your own Host site that hosts exactly one profile: yours. That won't prevent you from being part of the larger social network.
- Since individual Hosts manage their user's profiles, privacy can be controlled better. You will retain the choice to pick a service that best matches your privacy expectations.
Advantages for Developers
- When a new social networking site announces their own API and protocols, developers won't have to scamper to port their existing app to it. They simply continue hosting it themselves, and the newcomer Host will simply talk the same language out-of-the-box.
- Developers will also have the flexibility of tailoring their interface whichever way they want — they will not be required to adhere to the strict interface guidelines of individual sites.
- For those that heavily rely on eye-balls and advertising, they can continue to host their own content, not subject to a third party's terms of services.
- Expert users may choose to develop apps for themselves. These one-offs will be easy to integrate with that particular user's profile.
Advantages for Hosts
- Host sites will be able to position themselves in a market better, and distinguish themselves from other offerings in a better way than existing sites can.
- The network effect will no longer be the dominant reason for users picking one social networking site over another, and such sites will have to compete on real features and good design, rather than simply "because all my friends are here".
- Closer ties between users and hosts will enable them to tailor their services to the particular class of users they attract.
A Change in Philosophy
A few things will need to be re-thought, because, in a decentralized network, there are better alternatives to existing ways of doing things.
Disseminating and aggregating specialized content
We have seen specific websites and companies excelling in managing different types of data. Flickr specializes in photos, YouTube in videos, Blogger in blog posts, Twitter in one-line "twits". All-purpose sharing websites such as Facebook also let you upload and embed all these types of content. What is the use of duplicating this content on each individual social networking site?
In a decentralized network, my blog could stay at Blogger, my photos on Flickr, and my videos on YouTube. My personal profile is simply an aggregation of these multiple aspects of my personality. What's more, to design my own profile, I could just pick and choose the "modules" I want from a palette of available syndication options. (In fact, my own website is already designed like that: content you see here is aggregated from Twitter, Flickr, and FeedBurner, plus a few hosted pages.)
Developers can concentrate on what they do best, and outsource the rest of it to experts in individual areas. Photo album designers will not have to reinvent Flickr, and video distributors can simply leech YouTube's bandwidth for their hosting.
Profile information can be mashed up
A user's profile information can easily be mashed up for quick one-off applications. For example, if I need to create a list of all my friends from a particular group to print greeting cards, I do not need to write an application, submit it to Facebook and wait for their approval. I simply deploy it to my own Host's server and get done in the time it takes to write "SELECT * FROM Friends WHERE Group = 'christmas-cards'" (oh, and I would totally pick a host that provides a SQL interface for social data!) I can have an address book that integrates with my web-based email client, that maintains an updated list of email addresses of all my friends, of course pulled from their individual profiles.
Rethinking privacy and authorization
Authentication is easy (we'll look at that soon.) Authorization is hard. But this is a problem that should be easy for public-key cryptography to solve. I'm not a cryptography expert, so anything I say here will be wrong. But I trust that if the experts put their mind to this, it shouldn't be too bad to solve without having Alice, Bob and other alphabet-soup-inspired characters to make all their keys public.
To some, this may sound like a gross invasion of privacy, but in fact, deciding what information should be public, and making that publicly-accessible information searchable, are two different problems. Privacy gate-keepers at each Host will decide what content to make publicly accessible. Once that decision has been made, all the major search engines can index the public information (without having access to any of the private stuff.) Google made the Web searchable. A search engine for The One Social Network will make the world's population searchable.
The Ground Work
A quick analysis of what's required to make this happen makes us realize that much of the groundwork has already been laid.
Representing People and Relationships
The chief contribution of the recent boom in social networking is the recognition of the Person as a first-class entity on the Web. Earlier, the only way to represent a person on the Web was via her home-page. But that, too, was a static representation, largely disconnected from the activities and evolution of that person.
A recent push towards including semantic markup in Web pages has led to the development of microformats, a light-weight method of marking up entities within Web content in terms of loosely defined formats that do not interfere with the already-existing presentation duties of HTML. There is the hCard microformat defined for representing a person. The XHTML Friends Network establishes a format for indicating relationships among individuals on the Web. A lot of users and Host sites have made their pages XFN-Friendly, i.e., they have added semantic markup to the lists of their friends to indicate relationships.
Blogs and twits have emerged as easy ways for people to broadcast their activities to whoever is ready to lend an interested ear. There already are standards that help people share these activity logs in standard formats: Atom and RSS.
Representing Personal Information
Again, microformats have been defined for such diverse things as user-posted reviews, calendar entries, résumés, addresses, geographical location information, with a whole lot of other discussions in progress. The mother of all social networking artifacts, tagging, has also been microformatized.
Communicating Across Diverse Websites
Many sites these days are opening up their APIs for external applications to access and modify users' data over the Web. SOAP, XML-RPC and other, more formal protocols have given way to REST (Representational State Transfer) as a light-weight software architecture for distributed systems. With RESTful websites, it is easy for independent applications to modify data stored on servers: examples include Google's GData APIs for many properties, Flickr's API for accessing photos and metadata, Twitter's API for posting twits, and many other services.
Systems such as Open ID are emerging as viable standards for truly distributed authentication and identity management. There is no reason why an OpenID-based system cannot be used for the Network We Talked About. If we throw in the ability for Hosts to share authentication lists, that would make all Hosts available to all Users, and the question of having to "pick" a particular host may be moot.
Communication Protocols for Posting Messages Across Hosts
REST is here, but it only defines the transport architecture. A RESTful communication protocol will have to be developed for users to be able to post messages to other users on other Hosts. Nothing monumental, but just one thing that needs to be done.
Representing Groups Across Hosts
Groups of users will need a way to be recognized across Hosts. A simple way of doing this would be a naming scheme that stays unique across the network, much as Usenet groups have been. A lot of the lessons learned from the design of Usenet can be used here, because today's social networks are much similar to Usenet, with a few other goodies thrown in.
Although we are far from this vision, some sites (mainly Facebook) seem to have started on this path. The Facebook platform was a unique step in allowing developers to access users' profile information. Though, Facebook still is a walled garden. In part to increase traffic, they also have taken baby steps in making users' profiles available to search engines. MySpace profile pages are still very un-crawl-able. Flickr, Upcoming, and other Yahoo! sites use microformats extensively. Facebook provides RSS feeds of user activity.
Although these are steps in the right direction, they are not enough. Hopefully, we will reach a critical mass of social networking sites that adopt an open social network policy. Till then, you can find me at my many online haunts.Read More
I was playing with Telekinesis on Friday, which lets you use an iPhone as a remote control for your Mac. The idea is simple: Telekinesis runs a web server on your machine, and the iPhone connects to it. It ships with a few Telekinesis Applications (or "tapps"), or you can write your own to control your own programs.
I wrote one to control Keynote presentations from your iPhone. It's fairly simple: it shows you the current slide and the presenter's notes for that slide, and it lets you go forward and backward through your slide deck. (No, it's not release-quality yet, but expect it in a few days.)
So here's the real meat of this blog post: (Warning: geeky-acronym-land ahead.)
- Being a Mac OS X app, Telekinesis's UI is written in Objective C.
- It exposes a web server that can run PHP scripts.
- My remote application is a set of PHP scripts that sit on the Mac and run when the iPhone user launches the app.
- To capture the current slide, I use a command line program (
screencapture) inside a shell script from within PHP.
- I resize the large slide for the iPhone using another shell script, and push it out to the phone as a stream of bytes, via PHP.
- the PHP script interprets this request, and wants to use AppleScript to ask Keynote to update the current slide. But since there is no direct way to invoke AppleScript from PHP, we use the command-line tool
osascriptin a shell script to run our AppleScript.
- Keynote hears the call to action from our AppleScript, and changes the slide.
Has anyone changed lightbulbs with an iPhone yet?Read More
This, covered at the Official Google Book Search Blog.
While it is easy to share links, photos, videos, and opinions on the Web, sharing books with your friends online used to be tough -- and tougher even, to share individual clippings from a book. This summer, I worked with the Book Search team to add clip-sharing features to Google Book Search.
You can now highlight a section of text in any public domain book in Book Search, create a clip from it, and share it with the world. You can post your favorite clips to your blog along with a personal annotation, collect them in a Google Notebook, or share them with friends anywhere you decide to embed the link. Your clip looks exactly as it appears in the book, or if you prefer plain text, we have that too.
Also at the Official Google Blog, about collecting, sharing and discovering new books.
We've also launched a way to let users, select, copy and embed segments of public domain books (like the Newton quote) in any web page. We hope to make it as easy to blog and quote from a book as it is from any web page. Like many innovations at Google, a stellar summer intern worked on this.
Public transit seems to share many of the characteristics of the third place, as Ray Oldenburg calls them in The Great, Good Place. They're full of people from all walks of life, having random conversations, and brings several of the same people together with amazing regularity.
Sitting at a cafÃ© as I write this, and having used public transit for the three months of my internship at Google, I've wanted to pen these thoughts down for a long time. Every morning and every evening, I used to hang out with the same set of people. Sometimes a few fresh faces would make their way onto the bus; sometimes one of the regulars would sleep in late and miss their bus.
Whenever I happened to take a later bus than usual, some time around noon, the commuter crowd would have shrunk down to a trickle, and most passengers would be headed to finish off errands, or simply out and about the Bay Area. These passengers had an even greater rapport with the bus driver: I've been part of thoroughly engaging conversations with these people, who I do not know the names of, and probably never will. For them, it was a natural group that had formed because of their respective travel habits.
Public transit is markedly absent in America, but it is alive and kicking in most other countries: I've seen it in Dublin, I've seen it in MontrÃ©al, I've seen it in Bombay. The local trains of Bombay are the lifeline of the working population. The frequency and timeliness of the trains is something to be proud of (regrettably, the same cannot be said of the rest of the population.) Thus, groups of commuters who travel by the same trains day in and day out form their own cliques. There's even a name in the local lingo for it: "train friends." Just as you have family friends and work colleagues, this is a part of your social life that stays with you for a significant part of your life. You don't visit the homes of your train friends; you hardly talk shop with them; and you hardly meet them outside of the commuter context. But the place is a third place, after all.
As in all the other instances of the third place having a strong existence in Europe and all over the world, but lacking in America, the "place" of public transit exhibits similar properties. In USA, commuters are holed up in their oil-fueled cars and vans and SUVs, all the while blaming the other guy for causing all the traffic jams on the 8-lane highways. It is obvious that this causes at least a small amount of increase in stress levels of the driver (though I can't be bothered to look up a citation for that right now.) Compare that to urban populations elsewhere that share conversations on a bus or a train.
Ray Oldenburg could probably add "keeping stress levels low" to the ways in which third places affect the daily lives of those who inhabit them.Read More
No one can deny that good food makes you happy. For some of us, especially so. But when one refers to "food that's good for you", it turns out invariably to be based upon purely nutritional criteria. Why is the "goodness" of food not evaluated on how much psychological pleasure it brings to the eater?
Of course, taste forms no small part of evaluating food â€” ask any restaurant critic. But taste varies from palate to palate, and I'm rather referring to the hedonistic properties of food than its culinary properties. Certain foods make me happy, some make me ecstatic, and others make my day. But not all of those foods fall under the category of "food that's good for me". Why not? If a particular food lifts my mood up, gives me pleasure, and enhances my psychological well-being, it should be "good for me", right?
Healthy eating is a relatively recent phenomenon. Not because our forefathers didn't eat healthy. It's because they didn't have to coin a phrase to explicitly tag their diet 'nutritious' â€” it was always like that: healthy. At the same time, it was also tasty hedonistically-inclined food.
Let's face it, food is much more than just vital life-sustaining organic material being ingested regularly. Food is a central aspect of every culture; in fact, an inseparable part of it. So much so that some cultures are best-known for their food preparation practices, often masking their other, more significant achievements and traditions. Answer this one: how much do you know about Thai culture, other than Pad Thai and Masaman curries? The Szechuan? Malvani? Cajun? Mongolian? Penang?
After such rich culinary traditions, the current century has managed to create a divide between tasty and nutritious â€” in response to another 21st century phenomenon, the widespread global obesity epidemic. Junk food is nutritionally, well, junk, but it has made a permanent home in some people's lives (and in most cases, in their tummies too.) Obviously, there is something about it that makes people want to eat it. It's no different from an addiction, really. Put in another way, the hedonistic power of food trumps its perceived nutritional value to a significant number of people.
What if they didn't have to choose? What if they could get nutritious with tasty? Obsessed with making every food item extremely nutritious and "good for you", we have, in the process, killed its taste. What if we could backtrack just a little bit, to the point where food used to be tasty as well as nutritious (maybe not as much as current 'health foods', though)? To find this middle ground, perhaps we can look at our past and derive inspiration from some of the older recipes.
After all, we are living, thinking, pleasure-loving human beings who sincerely enjoy our regular excursions to the dining table, not just disinterested ingesters of nutrients.Read More